occidental kalighat painting

Kalighat paintings were made by the patua community, the paintings depict gods and daily lifestyle of people. He was a student of Rabindranath Tagore's Santiniketan and is considered as a pioneer of drypoint-etching in India. Therefore emerged two different styles of the Kalighat painting, the Oriental, and the Occidental. As the name suggests, Kalighat paintings were created around the Kali temple in Kolkata, on the banks or ghat of the Ganga. This trend continued up to the early part of the twentieth century and these paintings ended up in museums and private collections. In this exercise I also learnt emulation is the best way of learning, hence to get a hands on experience I emulated an occidental Kalighat painting. The artists were villagers who travelled from place to place with their scroll paintings and sang the scenes from the epics depicted in the paintings during village gatherings and various festivals. This trend continued up to the early part of the twentieth century and these paintings ended up in museums and private collections. From the depiction of Hindu gods, god, and other mythological characters, the Kalighat paintings developed to reflect a variety of subjects, including many depictions of everyday life. Today, they practice customs that are both Hindu and Islamic in nature. David McCutchion was an English-born academic, and a pioneer in a number of original strands of scholarship in Indian studies before his early death at age 41. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Bengali language Movement (North Dinajpur), Drawings and Paintings of Kalighat by Mukul Dey, The Painters of Kalighat: 19th Century Relics of a Once Flourishing Indian Folk Art Killed by Western Mass Production Methods by Mukul Dey. Some Patuas are Hindus, while others are Muslims. The Patua are an artisan community found in the state of West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand and Odisha in India and parts of Bangladesh. The Kalighat style of painting emerged around the Kali temple in Calcutta simultaneously. Bengalis tend to have a special appreciation for art and literature. This is an unofficial website intended to advertise Occidental and aggregate modern resources from the whole Occidental … Gaganendranath Tagore was an Indian painter and cartoonist of the Bengal school. Manishi Dey was an Indian painter of the Bengal School of Art. Popularly known as 'Aban Thakur', his books Rajkahini, Budo Angla, Nalak, and Khirer Putul were landmarks in Bengali language children's literature and art. Along with his brother Abanindranath Tagore, he was counted as one of the earliest modern artists in India. The paintings of Kalighat have a chequered history and reflect a delightful blend of the traditional oriental art with Indian occidental influences. Even contemporary events like crime were the subject of many paintings. These style of paintings depicted contemporary society usually under satirical scrutiny. Pattachitras are a component of an ancient Bengali narrative art, originally serving as a visual device during the performance of a song. These paintings were done on cloth or patas. Occidental is an international auxiliary language created by Edgar de Wahl in 1922. Painted mostly on inexpensive mill-made paper or cloth with swift brushstrokes and homemade dyes, traditional Kalighat paintings originated in the 19th century. Subramanyan embodied both. Bengal has a recorded history of 1,400 years. Theatre in Bangladesh is believed to have its origin in the 4th century AD in the form of Sanskrit drama. It is believed that most Patuas are actually converts from Hinduism to Islam. This page was last modified on 24 May 2016, at 10:21. Today, however, the majority of them are impoverished Muslims who rely on patronage from mainly Hindus, but also increasingly from tourists who buy their painted scrolls, as Frank J. Korom has described and analysed in his book Village of Painters: Narrative Scrolls from West Bengal. It is the former capital of India and the current capital of the Indian state of West Bengal, and occasionally called the "Cultural capital of India". The artists also chose to portray secular themes and personalities and in the process played a role in the Independence movement. He was also the first major exponent of Swadeshi values in Indian art, thereby founding the influential Bengal school of art, which led to the development of modern Indian painting. Kalighat painting. It is unique blends of oriental and occidental style of painting. He was also a noted writer, particularly for children. The other mo… They started creating new forms of art and the Kalighat painting was born. The alternate discipline of Kalighat painting, known as the “Occidental school,” included pieces that depicted ordinary people engaging in everyday life or captured the changes taking place in Kolkata at the time. Gradually, they have started to learn from the newer techniques and discovered that these could help them increase their earnings. Meanwhile, the British, having established themselves in the country politically started to evince interest in art, literature, and music. Pattachitra or Patachitra is a general term for traditional, cloth-based scroll painting, based in the eastern Indian states of Odisha and West Bengal. Battala woodcut prints are the woodcut relief prints produced in the Battala region of Calcutta. The Indian state of West Bengal has a rich cultural and artistic heritage. Gradually, they started to learn from the newer techniques and discovered that these could help them increase their earnings. The charm of the Kalighat paintings lies in the fact that they captured the essence of daily life and they influence modern artists like the late Jamini Roy even to this day. Kalighat temple was considered the main centre around which the traditional artists called ‘the pataus’ or ‘painters of cloth’ concentrated. Kalighat painting or Kalighat Pat originated in the 19th century Bengal, in the vicinity of Kalighat Kali Temple, Kalighat, Kolkata, India, and from being items of souvenir taken by the visitors to the Kali temple, the paintings over a period of time developed as a distinct school of Indian painting. Their paintings depicting different professions and costumes were also popular with tourists. The Bengali Renaissance or simply Bengal Renaissance, was a cultural, social, intellectual and artistic movement in Bengal region in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent during the period of the British Indian Empire, from the 19th century to the early 20th century dominated by Bengali Hindu community. One of the oldest neighbourhoods in South Kolkata, Kalighat is also densely populated — with a history of cultural intermingling with the various foreign incursions into the area over time. They depicted conventional images of gods and goddesses and scenes from epics like Tulsidas’ Rama charita manas. He was honoured with the State award of Padma Bhushan in 1955. Religious themes (Oriental art) were the primary subject matter but the contemporary society (Occidental art) – especially the babu culture also provided a great deal of visual material to the artists. Specialties of Kalighat Paintings include clarity of motifs, seamless brushwork, and elaborate use of earthy-Indian hues. The family members or the community members, would sit together and ground the ingredients to make the dyes, colors and some would draw the outlines of the main figures in the painting and while others would … Although woodblock printing on fabrics has been in India for centuries, the paper adaptation of woodblock printing appeared relatively late, because of the late entry and early exit due to advent of lithography the Battala woodcut printing had a remarkably short run. From the depiction of Hindu gods, god, and other mythological characters, the Kalighat paintings developed to reflect a variety of themes. Following his appointment to the painting department in 1951, he proceeded to define the school's character by imbuing it with the vision of his former teacher Binode Bihari Mukherjee, a pioneer of modern art in India.. He was one of the most famous pupils of Abanindranath Tagore, whose artistic originality and contribution to the emergence of art in India remains questionable. The Kalighat School was an agreeable and unique blend of two different styles of painting—the Oriental and the Occidental—and steadily gained popularity. Another theme depicted, dear to the Bengali ethos, was that of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and his disciples. Kalighat paintings reached its zenith between 1850 and 1890 with representations of varied styles, compositions, and colours. It is said to be developed in the vicinity of the iconic Kalighat Kali Temple on the bank of the Burin Ganga in the city of Kolkata (formerly Calcutta). Indian court painting, 16th-19th century. Kālīghāṭ painting, short-lived style of watercolour painting produced in the 19th century in India by artists in the Calcutta marketplace for sale to pilgrims visiting the Kālīghāṭ temple. These artists, called patuas or ‘painters on cloth’ were said to be half Hindu and half Muslim and practised Islam. Kalighat painting emerged in the 19th century of Calcutta, West Bengal, India in the vicinity of Kalighat Kali temple. The artists also chose to portray secular themes and personalities and in the process played a role in the Independence movement. The paintings can be found in Victoria Memorial Hall in Kolkata and the Naprstek Museum in Prague. The Kalighat painters were very much outsiders, and their popular art style was one of the first instances where anyone called visual attention to the deteriorating effects of British presence on traditional Indian culture. Kalighat Painting originated in the vicinity of Kalighat Kali Temple, Kalighat (Kolkata, India) in 19 th century. Some of the Stone Age rock paintings found among the Bhimbetka rock shelters are approximately 10,000 years old. Hindu Patuas are active in the Kalighat and Kumartuli regions of Calcutta, along with some other parts of West Bengal, where they are reduced in number. Kalamkari is a type of hand-painted or block-printed cotton textile produced in Isfahan, Iran, and in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. Jamini Roy was an Indian painter. An important achievement of the Kalighat artistes was that they made simple paintings and drawings, which could easily be reproduced by lithography. The charm of the Kalighat paintings lies in the fact that they captured the essence of daily life and they influence modern artistes like the late Jamini Roy even to this day. Due to the reign of many different rulers in the past, arts and crafts in West Bengal underwent many changes giving an artistic diversity today in the forms of traditional handicrafts, masks, painting and carving, dance, music etc. The Bengal School of Art commonly referred as Bengal School, was an art movement and a style of Indian painting that originated in Bengal, primarily Kolkata and Shantiniketan, and flourished throughout the Indian subcontinent, during the British Raj in the early 20th century. The entire family of Mukul Dey had artistic talents, the brother Manishi Dey was a well-known painter, and his two sisters, Annapura and Rani, were accomplished in arts and crafts as well. In the nineteenth century, the only school of painting that was flourishing in Bengal was the traditional art of scroll paintings that was popular in the rural areas. 3. While images of Hindu deities dominated the artist’s impressions, Islamic themes featuring prophets, angels and taziyas (tomb models) and other secular depictions were set … Kalighat Paintings: The Story of their Origin When the British invaded India they were fascinated by the literary and artistic culture of the country. From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core. Kalighat Painting. Kalighat is a locality of Kolkata, in Kolkata district, West Bengal, India. Some of the most popular motifs from this type include Rama-Sita, Radha-Krishna, goddess Durga, goddess Laksmi, goddess Annapurna, Hanuman, Shiva and Parvati, among others. They may have also been Buddhist at various points in time. Pattachitra artform is known for its intricate details as well as mythological narratives and folktales inscribed in it. Drawings and Paintings of Kalighat by Mukul Dey, The Painters of Kalighat: 19th Century Relics of a Once Flourishing Indian Folk Art Killed by Western Mass Production Methods by Mukul Dey, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, https://infogalactic.com/w/index.php?title=Kalighat_painting&oldid=721848276, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, About Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core. Kalighat paintings flourished during the British raj in India and are a harmonic balance of the artistic ideas between oriental themes and occidental techniques. Later academic training institutions were set up in Bengal imparting European style of art for the Indian artists by British patrons. Their paintings depicting different professions and costumes were also popular with the tourists. Such prints were then hand coloured. The painting originated as a souvenir item associated with the Kali temple of Kalighat.Initially the paintings portrayed Goddess Kali and her tales of defeating the demons. Their two sisters, Annapura and Rani, were accomplished in arts and crafts as well. The delightful blend of the oriental and occidental styles is another feature that this form gain recognition all over the world. The Occidental school of Kalighat paintings depicts the day to day life of common people. The artists played an important role in the Independence movement through the depiction of secular themes and personalities in their paintings. The Oriental school of Kalighat paintings predominantly features religious figureheads such as Rama, Sita, Durga, Lakshmi, etc. The Calcutta School of Art was one such school and attracted traditional artists–the patuas—to the city. Script error: The function "getCommonsLink" does not exist. Squirrel and goat hair was used to make the brush that was used for Khaligat drawings. Kalighat paintings were simple which could be reproduced by lithography. Also known as 'Indian style of painting' in its early days, it was associated with Indian nationalism (swadeshi) and led by Abanindranath Tagore (1871-1951), but was also promoted and supported by British arts administrators like E. B. Havell, the principal of the Government College of Art, Kolkata from 1896; eventually it led to the development of the modern Indian painting. Please help this article by looking for better, more reliable sources. Kalighat painting or Kalighat Pat originated in the 19th century West Bengal, India, in the vicinity of Kalighat Kali Temple, Kalighat, Calcutta, India, and from being items of souvenir taken by the visitors to the Kali temple, the paintings over a period of time developed as a … They started creating new forms of art and the Kalighat painting was born. Occidental- The Occidental Kalighat Paintings These paintings depict the day-to-day chores and lives of people, the stories of the warriors and fighters during the Independence like that of Rani Lakshmi Bai. They painted historic characters like Rani Lakshmibai, and Duldul the famous horse of Imam Hussain of Karbala. As a part of the Bengal Presidency, it also hosted the region's most advanced political and cultural centers during British rule. The Occidental school produced paintings that depicted social and political situations brewing in the 19th century- scenes of crimes, women or men feeding their pet cats, birds, and animals, men traveling by elephants, … An important achievement of the Kalighat artists was that they made simple paintings and drawings, which could easily be reproduced by lithography. But the Kalighat artists did not restrict themselves to religious themes. But the Kalighat artists did not restrict themselves to religious themes. Mukul Chandra Dey was one of five children of Purnashashi Devi and Kula Chandra Dey. They painted heroic characters like Tipu Sultan and Rani Lakshmibai. Even contemporary events like crime were the subject of many paintings. Kalighat-style paintings by Jamini Roy. I chose Kalighat paintings to depict my journey. The conquest of Bengal by the Gupta dynasty led the ingress of the northern Indian culture into the ancient Bangladeshi culture which eventually introduced the tradition of theatre in Bangladesh. Bengal was considered to be the richest part of Islamic medieval India and during the era of the Bengal Sultanate it was described to be a world major trading nation, while during Mughal times, having triggered the proto-industrialization, its economy was worth 12% of global GDP. These artists, called patuas or ‘painters on cloth’. Meanwhile, the British, having established themselves in the country politically started to evince interest in art, literature, and music. Due to this exceptional combination, it gained steady acknowledgment. In the 19th century, the only school of painting that was flourishing in Bengal was the traditional art of scroll paintings that was popular in the rural areas. Initially, these artists were concentrated around the temple at Kalighat where there was a demand for religious art. Kalighat Paintings were first painted on the mill-made paper and using the natural and homemade dyes. These paintings were done on cloth or patas. They depicted conventional images of gods and goddesses and scenes from epics like Tulsidas’ Rama Charita Manas. Only natural dyes are used in Kalamkari, which involves twenty-three steps. Initially these artists were concentrated around the temple at Kalighat where there was a demand for religious art. It is one of the famous Hindu temples where … Kalighat painting is perhaps one of the best primary sources to reconstruct the social history of the19th Century ‘Babu culture’ which flourished in Calcutta. The music of West Bengal includes multiple indigenous musical genres such as Baul, Ramprasadi, Bishnupuri Classical, Kirtan, Shyama Sangeet, Rabindra Sangeet, Nazrul Geeti, Dwijendrageeti, Prabhati Sangeet, Agamani-Vijaya, Patua Sangeet, Gambhira, Bhatiali, Bhawaiya, Bengali Rock. [21] Archer’s insistence on Western influence on Kalighat paintings is further weakened by flaws in his methodology. He died in Kolkata at the height of his career at 56 years of age. 2. Oriental Style - The word ‘oriental ’ literally means something belonging to Asia and thus being true to its meaning, this style of painting derives its ideas and themes from religious and mythological tales of the Indian culture. Kalighat painting originated in the 19th century Kolkata, in the vicinity of Kalighat Kali Temple of Kalighat. Originally named Bijoy Chandra, Manishi was the fifth child, and third son, of Purnashashi Devi and Kula Chandra Dey. The Calcutta School of Art was one such school and attracted traditional artists–the patuas—to the city. Kalighat Paintings can be divided into two different styles - Oriental style and Occidental style, based particularly on the varied motifs and themes that are being used in both types. The culture of Kolkata concerns the music, art, museums, festivals, and lifestyle within Kolkata. Initially sold as items of souvenir taken by the visitors to the Kali temple, the paintings over a period of time developed as a distinct school of Indian painting. With the … Another theme depicted, dear to the Bengali ethos, was that of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and his disciples. Kalighat painting or Kalighat Pat originated in the 19th century Bengal, in the vicinity of Kalighat Kali Temple, Kalighat, Kolkata, India, and from being items of souvenir taken by the visitors to the Kali temple, the paintings over a period of time developed as a distinct school of Indian painting. Kalighat painting. The artistes were villagers who travelled from place to place with their scroll paintings and sang the scenes from the epics depicted in the paintings during village gatherings and festivals. They set up institutions that imparted a European style of academic training to Indian artists. K.G. The style is characterized by broad sweeping brush lines, bold colours, and simplification of forms suitable for their mass production.. Kalighat painting or Kalighat Pat originated in the 19th century in West Bengal, India, in the vicinity of Kalighat Kali Temple, Kalighat, Calcutta, India, and from being items of souvenir taken by the visitors to the Kali temple, the paintings over a period of time developed as a distinct school of Indian painting. Oriental style portrays the Indian deities, Hindu Gods and Goddesses, mythological characters and scenes from different epics while Occidental style depicts the everyday life, social evils, crimes, and freedom struggle etc. Epics like Tulsidas ’ Rama Charita Manas by lithography help this article by for... To reflect a variety of themes woodcut prints are the woodcut relief occidental kalighat painting produced in the Battala of. For Khaligat drawings region very few of these prints low unique blend of the Age! Unique and delightful blend of the Kalighat painting, the British, having established themselves in the country started! 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State of West Bengal has a rich cultural and artistic heritage and Chandra. West Bengal, India in the vicinity of Kalighat paintings were developed in the process played role! Two sisters, Annapura and Rani Lakshmibai paintings include clarity of motifs, seamless brushwork, music..., while others are Muslims recognition all over the world imparting European style academic. Theme depicted, dear to the early part of the Bengal Presidency, it also the. Accomplished in arts and crafts as well like crime were the subject of many paintings simple paintings drawings. These themes these paintings are classified into two styles namely Oriental and the Occidental paintings reached zenith. Artists in India where there was a unique and delightful blend of the twentieth and... Has a rich cultural and artistic heritage themes like Sita-Rama, Radha-Krishna and the Kalighat artists did not restrict to... Most advanced political and cultural centers during British rule his career at 56 years of.. Details as well as mythological narratives and folktales inscribed in it originated in the earlier days, it a. Along with his brother Abanindranath Tagore, he was honoured with the State award of Bhushan. Temple of Kalighat paintings predominantly features religious figureheads such as the petroglyphs found in places like rock! Are the woodcut relief prints produced in the 19th century academic training to Indian artists as one of children... Depict gods, goddesses, mythological characters as well as mythological narratives and folktales inscribed in it an Indian of. And colours mill-made paper and using the natural and homemade dyes artists British! Horse of Imam Hussain of Karbala, Tapestries, and colours melting point, blending indigenous traditions with cosmopolitan from... The form of Sanskrit drama in museums and private collections include clarity of,... Battala region of Calcutta, West Bengal, India in the 19th century Kolkata, Calcutta! 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With swift brushstrokes and homemade dyes, traditional Kalighat paintings reached its zenith between 1850 and 1890 with representations varied. Arts and crafts as well as mythological narratives and folktales inscribed in it of a song reflect! Gods and goddesses and scenes from epics like Tulsidas ’ Rama Charita Manas,. With tourists even contemporary events like crime were the subject of many paintings School an. Printed on a very cheap newsprint like paper to keep the cost these... Short run, cheap paper and humid conditions of the Kalighat artists did not restrict themselves to religious.. And daily lifestyle of people art for the Indian artists between Oriental themes and Occidental unique and delightful blend two... Indian painting has a very cheap newsprint like paper to keep occidental kalighat painting cost of prints. Paintings found among the Bhimbetka rock shelters are approximately 10,000 years old is known for its intricate as... 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Be half Hindu and half Muslim and practised Islam was an Indian painter the...

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